Monthly Archives: November 2016

Palestinian Cuisine

17The region that has become Palestine has a varied past and as such, its cuisine has contributions from various cultures. After Palestine was conquered by the Muslims, it became part or province of a Greater Syria under the name Jund Filastin. Therefore, many aspects of Palestinian cuisine are similar to the cuisine of Syria especially in the Galilee. Modern Syrian-Palestinian dishes have been generally influenced by the rule of three major Islamic groups: the Arabs, the Persian-influenced Arabs and the Turks.

The Arabs that conquered Syria and Palestine had simple culinary traditions primarily based on the use of rice, lamb and yogurt, as well as dates. The already simple cuisine did not advance for centuries due to Islam’s strict rules of parsimony and restraint until the coming of the Abbasid Caliphate that established Baghdad as its capital. Baghdad was historically located on Persian soil and henceforth, Persian culture was integrated into Arab culture during the 800-1000s as ideas spread throughout central areas of the Abbasid empire. The Arab geographer al-Muqaddasi said this of Palestine’s foods:

From Palestine comes olives, dried figs, raisins, the carob fruit… from Jerusalem comes cheeses and the celebrated raisins of the species known as Ainuni and Duri, excellent apples… also pine nuts of the kind called Kuraish-bite, and their equal is not found elsewhere… from Sughar and Baysan come dates, the treacle called dibs and rice.

Village oven, taboon, in Palestine. Photo taken 1898-1914 by American Colony, Jerusalem.

The cuisine of the Ottoman Empire which incorporated Palestine as one of its provinces in 1512-14 was partially made up of what had become, by then a “rich” Arab cuisine. After the Crimean War, in 1855, many other communities including Bosnians, Greeks, French and Italians began settling in the area especially in urban centers such as Jerusalem, Jaffa and Bethlehem. These communities’ cuisines contributed to the character of Palestinian cuisine, especially communities from the Balkans. Until around the 1950s-60s, the main ingredients for rural Palestinians was olive oil, oregano and bread baked in a simple oven called a taboon. G. Robinson Lees, writing in 1905, observed that “The oven is not in the house, it has a building of its own, the joint property of several families whose duty is to keep it always hot.”

Regional cuisines

See also List of Palestinian dishes by region

There are three primary culinary regions in historical Palestine – the Galilee, Gaza and the West Bank (which has its own culinary subregions ranging from north to south). In the Galilee, bulgur and meat (beef or lamb) are primary ingredients that are often combined to form several variations of dishes ranging from a family-sized meal to a side dish. However, in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the populations have a cooking style of their own. In the West Bank, meals are particularly heavy and contrast from the foods of the northern Levant. Main dishes involve rice, flatbreads and roasted meats. The staple food of the inhabitants in the Gaza Strip is fish due to its location on the Mediterranean seacoast. Their culinary influences are also strongly affected by traditional Egyptian cooking and chili peppers, dill seeds and garlic the most common seasonings. Although the cuisine is diverse, generally Palestinians are not restricted to the foods of their specific region and there is constant culinary diffusion amongst them. Although, because of Gaza’s isolation from other Palestinian and Levantine Arab areas, their cooking styles are less known in the region.

Galilee

A plate of kubbi balls with a garnishing of mint leaves

The Galilee is very similar to Lebanese cuisine, due to extensive communication between the two regions before the establishment of Israel. The Galilee specializes in a number of meals based on the combination of bulgur, spices and meat, known as kubbi by Arabs. Kubbi bi-siniyee is a combination of minced lamb or beef mixed with pepper, allspice and other spices wrapped in a bulgur crust, then baked. Kubbi bi-siniyee could serve as the main dish during a Palestinian lunch. Kubbi neyee is a variation of kubbi directly imported from Lebanon, that is served as raw meat mixed with bulgur and a variety of spices. It is mostly eaten as a side dish and pita or markook bread is used for scooping the meat. Since the dish is raw, whatever is not eaten is cooked the next day in either the baked version or as fried kubbi balls.

Manakeesh is also a very common breakfast food. It is somewhat like pizza, but topped with a number of mixtures. The most common are homemade cheese and olive oil, oregano with sesame and oil, and onions with spices and hot sauce. They go very well with a cup of tea, fresh vegetables and herbs, olives, and lebeneh (homemade yogurt strained to the consistency of cream cheese) on the side.

Lahm bi ajeen (literally translated: meat with dough) is also similar to manakeesh and is excellent with the slightly sour Arabic yogurt drink.

A special occasion meal in the Galilee consists of Roasted Lamb or any other type of meat complimented by a mixture of rice with chopped lamb and flavored with an assortment of spices, usually garnished with chopped parsley and toasted nuts. shish kebab or lahme mashwi and shish taouk are grilled meats on skewers and are commonly eaten after an array of appetizers known as the maza.

Maza basically is appetizers, and a bunch of them at that which usually include hummus (sometimes topped with meat), baba ghannouj, tabouli, lebeneh, grape leaves (usually stuffed with meat, but sometimes with vegetables) kubbi (as mentioned above in any form), olives and pickles, and many many more.Ackawi, a semi-hard cheese common throughout the Middle East and among the Arab diaspora originated in the city of Acre along the Galilee’s coast. Acre is pronounced Acka, from which the cheese receives its name.

West Bank

Musakhan bread

Musakhan is a common main dish that originated in the Jenin and Tulkarm area in the northern West Bank. It consists of a roasted chicken over a taboon bread that has been topped with pieces of fried sweet onions, sumac, allspice and pine nuts. Maqluba is an upside-down rice and baked eggplant casserole mixed with cooked cauliflowers, carrots and chicken or lamb. The meal is known throughout the Levant but among Palestinians especially. It dates back to the 13th century.

A siniyyeh of Mansaf

Mansaf is a traditional meal in the central West Bank and Naqab region in the southern West Bank, having its roots from the Bedouin population of ancient Palestine. It is mostly cooked on occasions such as, during holidays, weddings or a large gathering. Mansaf is cooked as a lamb leg or large pieces of lamb on top of a taboon bread that has usually been smothered with yellow rice. A type of thick and dried cheesecloth yogurt from goat’s milk, called jameed, is poured on top of the lamb and rice to give it its distinct flavor and taste. The dish is also garnished with cooked pine nuts and almonds. The classic form of eating mansaf is using the right hand as a utensil. For politeness, participants in the feast tear pieces of meat to hand to the person next to them.

Maqluba with lamb

In addition to meals, the West Bank’s many subregions have their own fruit-based jams. In the Hebron area, the primary crops are grapes. Families living in the area harvest the grapes in the spring and summer to produce a variety of products ranging from raisins, jams and a molasses known as dibs. The Bethlehem area, Beit Jala in particular, and the village of Jifna are known regionally for their apricots and apricot jam as is the Tulkarm area for its olives and olive oil.

Gaza

The cuisine of the Gaza Strip is influenced by both neighboring Egypt and its location on the Mediterranean coast. The staple food for the majority of the inhabitants in the area is fish. Gaza has a major fishing industry and fish is often served either grilled or fried after being stuffed with cilantro, garlic, red peppers and cumin and marinated in a mix of coriander, red peppers, cumin, and chopped lemons. Besides fish, as well as other types of seafood, Gazan cooking styles are affected by Egyptian culinary influences. This generally includes using hot peppers, garlic and chard to flavor many of their meals. Zibdieh, is a clay pot dish that consists of shrimp baked in a stew of olive oil, garlic, hot peppers, and peeled tomatoes. Crabs are cooked and then stuffed with a red hot pepper paste called shatta.

A dish native to the Gaza area is Sumaghiyyeh. The meal consists of water-soaked ground sumac mixed with tahina. The mixture is added to sliced chard and pieces of stewed beef and garbanzo beans and then additionally flavored with dill seeds, garlic and hot peppers. It is often eaten cool with khubz. Rummaniyya depends on the particular time of the year and it is made up of unripened pomegranate seeds, eggplant, tahina, garlic, hot peppers and lentils. Fukharit adas is a slow-cooked lentil stew flavored with red pepper flakes, crushed dill seeds, garlic, and cumin, traditionally made during winter and early spring.

Qidra is a rice dish named after the large clay vessel and clay oven that is used baked it. In the oven, the rice is cooked with pieces of meat, often lamb, whole garlic cloves, garbanzo beans, cardamom pods, and various other spices such as, turmeric which gives it a yellow color cinnamon, allspice, nutmeg and cumin. Plain rice cooked in meat or chicken broth and flavored with mild spices including cinnamon is known as fatteh ghazzawiyyeh. The rice is layered over a thin markook bread known as farasheeh, smothered in ghee (an Egyptian variation of butter) and topped with stuffed chicken or lamb. The meal is eaten with green peppers and lemon sauce.

Types of meals

Bread meals

See also List of Palestinian breads

Sfiha patties

Palestinians bake a variety of different kinds of breads: they include khubz, pita and markook and taboon. Khubz is an everyday bread and is very similar to pita. It often takes the place of utensils; It is torn into bite size pieces and used to scoop various dips such as hummus or ful. Markook bread is a paper-thin unleavened bread and when unfolded it is almost transparent. Taboon receives its name from the ovens used to bake them.

A Palestinian woman baking markook bread in the village of Artas near Bethlehem

There are several types of sandwich and pizza-like foods eaten by the Palestinians, including manaeesh, sfiha, fatayer and shawarma. Manaeesh is a baked flat bread, usually topped with za’atar and olive oil. simboseh and fatayer are baked or sometimes fried doughs stuffed with minced meat and cooked onions or snobar (pine nuts). Fatayer is usually folded into triangles and unlike simboseh, it could be filled with spinach or za’atar.

Sfiha is a baked miniature flatbread, topped with lamb and cooked red peppers or tomatoes. Shawarma is mostly served in a long folded roll of khubz wrapped around shaved lamb or chicken accompanied by pickled turnips and cucumbers, tomatoes, onions and tahina. Shawarma could also be served as lamb slices on a plate with tahina as a side dish. Falafel are fried peppered fava beans or sometimes chickpeas, parsley and onions fried together into small patties. They’re usually served and eaten wrapped in khubz.

Mahashi

A family-sized serving of waraq al-‘ainib

Mahashi dishes are composed of stuffed vegetables such as, eggplants, baby pumpkins, potatoes, carrots and marrows as well as a variety of leaf vegetables, primarily grape leaves, cabbage leaves and less often chard. Mahashi requires delicacy and time the main reason it is prepared before the day it is cooked and served. Many female family members participate in the rolling and stuffing of the vegetables, relaxing the amount of individual effort required.

Waraq al-‘ainib (grape leaves; known as dolma in Western and Balkan countries), is a mahashi meal reserved for large gatherings. The grape leaves are normally wrapped around minced meat, white rice and diced tomatoes, however meat is not always used. It is then cooked and served as dozens of rolls on a large plate usually accompanied by boiled potato slices, carrots and lamb pieces. Kousa mahshi are zucchinis stuffed with the same ingredients as waraq al-‘ainib and usually served alongside it heavy meals. If made with a large number of zucchinis it is known as waraq al-‘ainib wa kousa.

Dips and side dishes

See also List of Palestinian dips and List of Palestinian cheeses

A plate of hummus, garnished with paprika and olive oil and pine nuts

Bread dips and side dishes such as, hummus, baba ghanoush, mutabbel and labeneh are frequented during breakfast and dinner. Chick peas are commonly served as hummus bi tahini, boiled and ground beans mixed with tahini (sesame paste) and sometimes lemon juice. It is often is slathered in olive oil and sometimes sprinkled with paprika, oregano and pine nuts; the latter are especially popular in the West Bank. The town of Abu Ghosh west of Jerusalem, is a popular hummus destination for Israelis and tourists. Chick peas are also be mixed, boiled or cooked with ful (fava beans), resulting in a entirely different dish, mukhluta, with a distinct flavor and brownish color.

Baba ghanoush is an eggplant or aubergine salad or dip with several variants. The root of all the variants is broiled and mashed eggplant and tahini lathered with olive oil, which can then be flavored with either garlic, onions, peppers, ground cumin seeds, mint and parsley. Mutabbel is one of the spicier variants that receives its zest from green chili peppers.

Jibneh Arabieh or jibneh baida is a white table cheese served with any of the above dishes. Ackawi cheese is a common variation of jibneh baida. Ackawi cheese has a smoother texture and a mild salty taste. Labaneh is a pasty yogurt-like cream cheese either served on a plate with olive oil and za’atar – which is generally called labeneh wa za’atar – or in a khubz sandwich.

Salads

See also List of Palestinian salads

Tabbouleh with lettuce and wedges of lemon

A simple Palestinian salad is salatat bandura (tomato salad), composed of diced tomatoes, scallions and cucumbers combined with olive oil, garlic, lemon juice and salt. Tabbouleh is a Mediterranean-style table salad originating in the Levant. The salad is made from parsley pieces, bulgur, diced tomatoes, cucumbers and is sauted with lemon juice and vinegar. In 2006, the largest bowl of tabbouleh in the world was prepared by Palestinian cooks in the West Bank city of Ramallah. Fattoush is a combination of toasted bread pieces and parsley with chopped cucumbers, radishes, tomatoes and scallions and flavored by sumac. Dagga is a Gazan salad usually made in a clay bowl and is a mix of crushed tomatoes, garlic cloves, red hot peppers, chopped dill and olive oil. Its seasoned with lemon juice immediately before being served.

Salatah arabieh or “Arab salad” is a salad used with most meals. Romaine lettuce, tomatoes and cucumbers are the main ingredients. Lettuce is cut into long strips, then chopped into thin strands, the tomatoes and cucumbers are chopped into cubes. Finely chopped parsley and mint give it a “particular zest” according to chef Ali Qleibo. A pinch of salt, the juice of a whole fresh lemon and several tablespoons of olive oil are used for final touch ups.

Sweets

A siniyyeh of Kanafeh

Palestinian desserts include baklawa, halawa and kanafeh, as well as other semolina and wheat pastries. Baklawa is a pastry made of thin sheets of unleavened flour dough, filled with pistachios and walnuts sweetened by honey. Halawa is a block confection of sweetened sesame flour served in sliced pieces. Muhalabiyeh is a rice pudding made with milk and topped with pistachios or almonds.

Kanafeh, a well-known dessert in the Arab World and Turkey, originated in the city of Nablus in the northern West Bank in the early 1400s. Made of several fine shreds of pastry noodles with honey-sweetened cheese in the center, the top layer of the pastry is usually dyed orange with food coloring and sprinkled with crushed pistachios. Nablus, to the present day is famed for its kanafeh, partly due to its use of a white-brined cheese called Nabulsi after the city. Boiled sugar is used as a syrup for kanafeh.

Snack foods

It is common for Palestinian hosts to serve fresh and dried fruits, nuts, seeds and dates to their guests. Roasted and salted watermelon, squash and sunflower seeds as well as, pistachios and cashews are common legumes. Watermelon seeds, known as bizir al-bateekh are eaten regularly during various leisurely activities: playing cards, smoking nargila, conversing with friends or before and after meals.

Meal structure

Palestinian culture and life revolves around food in every aspect, whether it is an ordinary day or a special occasion such as a wedding or holiday. Meals are structured in a cyclical order by Palestinians and span into two main courses and several intermediate ones like coffee, fruits and sweets as well as dinner. Like in most Arab cultures, meals are a time to spend with family and could last 1-2 hours depending on the specific time of the day. Unlike other cultures, lunch is the primary course and breakfast and dinner are lighter in contents.

Iftur (lit. ‘breakfast’) is a term for breakfast, usually consists of fried eggs, olives, labaneh, olive oil or jams. Hummus bi tahini is also eaten primarily during this time the day.

Gheda is a term for lunch, usually late in the afternoon. Lunch is the heaviest meal of the day and main ingredients could include rice, lamb, chicken, cooked vegetables and forms of mahashi.

Asrooneh Derives from the word ‘Aasr (lit. ‘afternoon’) is a term for the consumption of a variety of fruits and legumes after gheda.

‘Asha is a term for dinner, usually eaten anytime from 8-10 pm. ‘Asha is simpler than gheda and some foods consumed include fatayer, hummus bi tahini, a variety of salads and a Levantine-style omelette called ijee.

‘Hilew Sometimes after or just before ‘asha as well as when hosting guests come various sweets. Baklawa is common and is usually purchased from pastry shops instead of made at home like muhallabiyeh.

Shay wa Kahwe Tea and coffee are served in throughout the day in before, after and between iftur, gheda and ‘asha.

Dining out

A maqhah in Jerusalem during Ottoman rule in Palestine, 1858

Mata’im Offer a brilliant array of cold appetizers known as the mezze. Notably, hummus bi tahini, mukhluta, sometimes nearly a dozen variations of aubergine salad, tabbouleh, fattoush, chili pepper and red cabbage salads and dishes made up by the chef are served. Kibbee balls and sfiha are the primary hot appetizers available. Heavy meals are rarely provided by restaurants, instead however, the entres include shish kebab, shish taouk, rack of lamb and chicken breasts.

al-Maqhah Serve hot beverages and soft drinks and are usually restricted to male customers who take part in leisurely activities like playing cards or backgammon and smoking argileh (Arabic for hookah).

Coffee Shops Found in the newer areas of cities and major towns. Although the English word is used to name these places, the items served are of Middle Eastern flavors. These new cafes are the gathering places of the younger generation of males and females alike, where they can smoke Nargilas and have various types of coffees and teas. Food is rarely served at such locations.

Mahal ‘hilewayet Found in the souks of cities and major towns, they offer a wide range of sweets common with Palestinians, such as, kanafeh, baklawa and anise-flavored cookies. Family-run shops often serve at least one type of sweet that they themselves created.

Mahal falafel Sandwich shops that offer mainly falafel and shawarma with several different contents.

Beverages

See also List of Palestinian beverages

Palestinian women grinding coffee, 1905

Arak bottles

Homemade fruit juices are also a common household drink during warm days and during Ramadan, the holy month for fasting by Muslims. A warm drink made from sweetened milk with salep garnished with walnuts, coconut flakes and cinnamon, is known as sahlab and is primarily served during the winter season.

A widely consumed liquor by Palestinian Christians and many less-stringently observant Muslims is Arak. Arak is a clear anise flavored alcoholic drink that is mixed with water to soften it and give it a creamy white color. It is consumed during special occasions such as holidays, weddings, and gatherings or with the mezze. Beer is also a consumed drink and the Palestinian town of Taybeh in the central West Bank contains the only beer brewery in the Palestinian territories. In addition to regular beer, the brewery produces non-alcoholic beer for conservative Muslims. Soft drinks are also common in Palestinian homes and the city of Ramallah contains a Coca-Cola bottling plant, while Gaza, Hebron and Nablus have distribution centers. A Pepsi-Cola plant in Gaza was shut down in 2007.

Coffee and tea

Two hot beverages that Palestinians consume is coffee served in the morning and throughout the day and tea which is often sipped in the evening. Tea is usually flavored with na’ana (mint) or maramiyyeh (sage). The coffee of choice is usually Turkish or Arabic coffee. Arabic coffee is similar to Turkish coffee, but the former is spiced with cardamom and is usually unsweetened.

Among Bedouins and most other Arabs throughout Palestine, bitter coffee, known as gahwah sadah (Lit. plain coffee), was a symbol of hospitality. Pouring the drink was ceremonial; it would involve the host or his eldest son moving clockwise among guests who were judged by age and status pouring coffee into tiny cups from a brass pot. It was considered “polite” for guests to accept only three cups of coffee and then end their last cup by saying dyman, meaning “always”, but intending to mean “may you always have the means to serve coffee”.

Holiday cuisine

There is a sharp difference of Palestinian courses eaten on a daily basis in comparison to those reserved for holidays which include family and religious occasions for both Muslims and Christians.

Ramadan

In the past, during the fasting month of Ramadan, the Musaher of a town would yell and beat his drum to wake up the town’s residents for suhoor (lit. ‘of dawn’) – usually very early in the morning, ranging from 4-6 am. The meals eaten during this time are light and foods include labeneh, cheese, bread and fried or boiled eggs along with various liquids to drink. The muezzin’s call to dawn prayers signaled the beginning of sawm or fasting.

Breaking the day’s fasting traditionally begins with the brief consumption of dates and a chilled beverage. Palestinians make a variety of fruit-based beverages, including the flavors, tamar Hindi or tamarind, sous or licorice, kharroub or carob and Qamar Eddine. Tamar Hindi is made by soaking tamarinds in water for a many hours, then straining, sweetening and mixing it with rose water and lemon juice. Kharroub is made similarly except instead of tamarind, carob is used. Qamar Eddine is made of dried apricots boiled into a liquid and chilled.

The term iftar has a different meaning in Ramadan where it is used to describe the ‘breaking of fasting’ unlike its common meaning of breakfast in the morning. Iftar begins with soup, either made from lentils, vegetables or freekeh. Shurbat freekeh (“freekeh soup”) is made from cracked, green wheat cooked in chicken broth. There is a wide variety of meals served during iftar, ranging from small plates or bowls vegetable-based courses or saniyyehs (large plates or trays) of a particular meat. Common small dishes on the dinner table are bamia a name for okra in tomato paste, mloukhiyeh a corchorus stew or maqali, an array of fried tomatoes, aubergines, potatoes, peppers and zucchini. Pilaf or plain freekeh are normally served alongside the dinner meat. Each household prepares extra food to provide for their neighbors and the less fortunate who must receive an equal version of the food eaten at home.

Holiday sweets

A common Palestinian dessert reserved only for Ramadan is qatayef, which could be provided by the numerous street vendors in several major Palestinian cities or towns as well as typical Palestinian households. Qatayef is the general name of the dessert as a whole, but more specifically, the name of the batter that acts as a base. The result of the batter being poured into a round hot plate appears similar to pancakes, except only one side is cooked, then folded. The pastry is filled with either unsalted goat cheese or ground walnuts and cinnamon. It is then baked and served with a hot sugar-water syrup or sometimes honey.

Ka’ak bi ‘awja is a semolina shortbread pastry filled with ground dates called ‘ajwa or walnuts. The dessert is a traditional meal for Christians during Easter, however, ka’ak bi awja is also prepared towards the end of Ramadan, to be eaten during Eid al-Fitr – a Muslim festival immediately following Ramadan, as well as during Eid al-Adha. During Mawlid the holiday honoring the birth of the Islamic prophet Muhammad Zalabieh which consists of small, crunchy deep fried dough balls in dipped in syrup, is served. The dough is made from flour, yeast and water.

A special pudding called mughli is prepared for a new born child. The dessert is made of ground rice, sugar and a mixture of spices, garnished with almonds, pine nuts and walnuts. An infant’s new tooth is celebrated with bowls of sweetened wheat or barley and sweets served after a child’s circumcision include baklava and Burma. Christian families in mourning serve a sweet bun known as rahmeh. It is a food eaten in remembrance of the dead and as a gesture of blessing the soul of the deceased person. The Greek Orthodox Church offer a special tray with cooked wheat covered with sugar and candy after a memorial service.

See also

Arab cuisine

Israeli cuisine

Levantine cuisine

List of Palestinian dishes

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cuisine of Palestine

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External links

The rich flavors of Palestine Mai M. Farsakh, This Week in Palestine, Jun 21, 2006

Palestinian Cuisine IMEU, JAN 16, 2006

Hummus, a Palestinian staple by Lailie Ibrahim, Mar. 31, 2006

Ramadan in Palestine at the Institute for Middle East Understanding

Falafel balls filled with French cheese

Further reading

Christiane Dabdoub Nasser, Classic Palestinian Cookery, Saqi Books, London, 2001, ISBN 0863565484

Christiane Dabdoub Nasser, Classic Palestinian Cuisine, Saqi Books, London, 2008, ISBN 0863566189

Aziz Shihab, A Taste of Palestine: Menus and Memories, Corona Publishing Co. ISBN 0931722934

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autonomies,

other territories

Aceh  Adjara1  Akrotiri and Dhekelia  Altai  British Indian Ocean Territory  Buryatia  Christmas Island  Cocos (Keeling) Islands  Guangxi  Hong Kong  Inner Mongolia  Iraqi Kurdistan  Khakassia  Macau  Nakhchivan  Ningxia  Papua  Sakha Republic  Tibet  Tuva  West Papua  Xinjiang

1 Sometimes included in Europe, depending on the border definitions.  2 Officially known as Myanmar.  3 Sometimes included in Oceania, and also known as Timor-Leste.  4 Transcontinental country.  5 Commonly known as Taiwan.

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Middle Eastern cuisine

Armenia  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Cyprus  Georgia  Iran  Iraq  Israel  Jordan  Kuwait  Lebanon  Northern Cyprus (TRNC)  Oman  Palestine  Qatar  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Turkey  United Arab Emirates  Yemen

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Cuisine of the Mediterranean

Northern Africa

Algeria  Egypt  Libya  Morocco  Tunisia

Southern Europe

Albania  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Croatia  France  Gibraltar  Greece  Italy  Malta  Montenegro  Portugal  Slovenia  Spain

European regions

Andalusia  Balearics  Catalonia  Corsica  Occitania  Sicily  Valencia

Caucasus and Middle East

Armenia  Cyprus  Israel  Lebanon  Palestine  Syria  Turkey

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Cuisine (List of cuisines)

Regional

Africa  Asia  Caribbean  Europe  Latin America  Mediterranean  Middle East  North America  Oceania  South Asia

Historical

Ancient Egyptian  Ancient Greek  Ancient Roman  Historical Chinese  Historical Indian  Medieval  Ottoman

Styles

Fast food  Fusion  Immigrant

Types of Food

Confectionery  Dairy products  Fruit  Herbs / Spices  Meat  Vegetable

Carbohydrate Staples

Bread  Cassava  Pasta  Potato  Quinoa  Rice  Sweet Potato  Yam

Types of Dish

Curry  Dip  Pizza  Salad  Sandwich  Sauce  Soup  Stew

Technical

Eating utensils  Food preparation utensils  Techniques  Weights and measures

Your Existing Mattress May Be Causing You Problems Sleeping

You have constantly considered it absolutely was just something in regards to you. You’d retire for the night worn out from a long, challenging day and awaken nonetheless worn out. An individual would likely consider perhaps you required a little more rest compared to precisely what you provided yourself. Right now there would likely be days and nights as you would likely move to bed not really all that fatigued nevertheless wake worn out. It was thus unusual. You wished a lot to be a type of those who awoke refreshed along with enthusiastic to start out your day however it never ever occurred to suit your needs. You came to consider it actually was exactly the means it was actually. Eventually you stumbled on somebody who possessed the same issue. In talking to them you remarked that maybe it wasn’t only you, it’s possible that it was your bedding.

There are a few people who can easily sleep anywhere as well as on anything. They will awaken lively along with happy. There are other people who just can’t do that. You will be one of those. You may be a princess as told in the timeless fairy tale, but you come to feel every little thing when you deep sleep. You don’t know whether it be that you might want top mattresses or not, nevertheless, you definitely should start reading through a number of mattress guides to determine if there’s one around that could be whatever you have already been trying to find the whole life. You’ll need only the best mattress reviews to determine if you will find the most appropriate one.

If you started looking at new mattresses, you had no idea about there were clearly several varieties. There are numerous best mattresses of 2016 just where do you perhaps even commence? An extremely trustworthy bed retailer might be a good way. Looking at those reviews online will give you a fantastic starting point and a guide for when you happen to be talking with salesmen. Go into the retailer and attempt out each of the mattresses. That maybe what they are simply there for. You may even bring them home. The majority of locations will give you your money-back following a tryout. Often there is only simply no other strategy to know if the actual mattress is a great fit until you sleep on it. The one thing is without question for sure, don’t simply check out a outlet store and purchase one off the floor. Go to the shop who specializes in mattresses.

The Art of Mastering Beers

How to Choose a Quality Microbrew Equipment Home brewing should be part of you daily activities in your house. You would probably feel excited and watering with the idea of drinking that first home brewed beer made from your own microbrew system. But what Microbrew System do you really need? An excellent microbrew equipment usually composes of these two important things: a stainless steel kettle and a stainless conical fermenter. But in this article, you can find out more about microbrews. Let us proceed. Do you have friends and family coming over for a dinner party? If you answered yes, then be sure to buy an excellent microbrew equipment that produces great home brewed beer. It is a good idea to search on the internet for cheap and affordable microbrew equipment that is on your budget. When you are done choosing for the microbrew equipment that you desire, then all you have to do is buy it, set it up and enjoy a beer. Then you are now ready to roll and invite your friends and family.
What You Should Know About Beers This Year
Microbrew Equipment: How Would You Bottle Your Brew?
The Art of Mastering Beers
Once you have all the necessary microbrew equipment to setup a microbrewing system, then you need to buy a microbrew equipment that would bottle your brew. You can invest in two to four at a minimum cases of beer bottles. Keep in mind to make sure that these beer bottles are clean and not broken. You can also buy a good bottle capper that will cover the mouth of the bottles, this will help you do things a lot simpler. Microbrew Equipment: What Things Do You Need? One important part of any microbrew equipment is the beer brewing kettle that you will use to brew your beer in. Many home brewers would suggest that your kettle should be at least 8 gallons. Just be sure to purchase brewing kettles that are made of stainless steel. The next brewing tool that you will need is a bottle of bleach, you can use this to sanitize any microbrewing equipment. Lastly, you have to buy a conical fermenter for you to ferment and enrich the flavors and texture of your beer. Whichever microbrew equipment you prefer, it should accommodate to at least 10 gallons of liquid. When you are purchasing the brewing kettle and fermenator, you should also find a six feet vinyl hose that you need to siphon you home brewed beer. You should also invest on a good micro brew equipment for you to enjoy a great taste of home made beer. You can purchase now and have fun together with your family and friends. You should definitely try this wonderful brewing experience of a home made beer. Making a decision to buy this brewing equipment will surely not be a waste of your money, time and effort. So start searching for that great micro brewing equipment today!

Indian Regional Cuisine

16Discussed in this article is the remaining Indian regional cuisine, and this includes these regions in India:  Hyderabadi, Sindhi, Marwari, Chettinadu, Dogri, Kashmiri, and Marathi.

Again, these regions may have similar ingredients as well as similar cooking styles, but there are differences between each Indian regional cuisine that makes it unique from the other.

Hyderabadi Cuisine

The Hyderabadi Cuisine is a cuisine that originated from Hyderabad, which is a city that can be found in Andhra Pradesh.  This cuisine is highly influenced by the cuisines that originated from the northern regions of India, so it is not surprising to see influences of the Awadh as well as Mughlai cuisine.  It has also been influenced by Tandoori.  Its use of herbs and spices was also highly influenced by the cuisines of Telugu and Marathwada.  If there is one thing that can be said about the Hyderabadi Cuisine is that it makes careful use of the ingredients that are going into the dish, giving the dishes very distinctive flavors and aromas.  What separates it though from the cuisines coming from the North is its prevalent use of tamarind as well as coconut.

Classical Dishes from Hyderabadi:

Hyderabadi Biryani

Mutton Biryani

Hyderabadi Haleem

Bagara Khana

Hyderabadi Kheema

Ingredients Utilized in Hyderabadi Cuisine:

Cereals: Rice

Legumes and Pulses: Lentil.

Nuts and Seeds: Almond, poppy seeds, fennel seeds, mustard seeds

Herbs and Spice (Dried and Fresh): Coriander, turmeric, saffron, cinnamon, chili powder, ginger

Seasonings- Oils: Coconut oil

Dairy: Butter, cream, milk, paneer or cheese, yoghurt

Vegetables: Onion, eggplant, tomato, carrot, beans, peas, spinach

Fruits: Tamarind, date fruit, banana

Meat: Chicken, lamb, mutton, goat,

Fish: Whitefish, pomfret, various river fish

Seafood: Prawn

Sindhi Cuisine

The Sindhi Cuisine comes from Sindh, Pakistan.  Because of migration and people from Sindh moving to the country after the Partition of India, the Sindhi Cuisine became popular that, pretty soon, the locals adopted the cuisine.  The staples of this cuisine are made up of rice and flat bread made from wheat, and it is also highly influenced by religion so there is no pork meat in the dishes.

Classical Dishes from Sindhi:

Sindhi Mutton Biryani

Sindhi Channa

Sindhi Kadhi

Sindhi Pakora

Toor Ki Dal

Ingredients Utilized in Mughlai Cuisine:

Cereals: Rice, wheat

Legumes and Pulses: Lentils

Nuts and Seeds: Coriander seed, poppy seeds, mustard seeds, cumin seeds, peanuts, cashew nuts, almond, pistachio

Leaves: Coriander leaves, mint leaves, bay leaves

Herbs and Spice (Dried and Fresh): Dry mango poweder, cardamom pods, black pepper, garlic, ginger, cumin, turmeric powder, asafetida, saffron, chilies, coriander

Dairy: Butter, milk, yoghurt

Vegetables: Eggplant, cabbage, carrot, spinach, potato

Fruits: Date fruit, mango

Meat: Chicken, lamb

Fish: Pomfret, hamour fish

Marwari Cuisine

The Marwari Cuisine is mostly vegetarian dishes, and it is not much different fro the cuisine of the Rajputs.  What makes it different though is that it is far more richer, what with its cooking preparation and methods.  Aside from this, the Marwari Cuisine is also known for its sweets.  They can afford to be lavish to their desserts because they were merchants and traders, so they have access to faraway markets not only those found in the country but across Southeast Asia as well.

Classical Dishes from Marwari:

Gatta Curry

Dhaniyamangodi

Dalbati

Forbati

Papad Ki Sabzi

Ingredients Utilized in Marwari Cuisine:

Cereals: Wheat, rice, gram flour

Legumes and Pulse: Lentils

Nuts and Seeds: Cumin seeds, peanuts, almond, cashew nuts

Herbs and Spice (Dried and Fresh): Coriander, chili powder, turmeric powder, asafetida, ginger, cinnamon, cardamom, mint

Dairy: Yoghurt, cream, butter

Vegetables: Onions, beans

Fruits: Lemon

Meat: Game meat

Chettinadu Cuisine

The Chettinadu Cuisine is a cuisine that came from the Chettinad region in South India.  This cuisine is popular because of its use of a number of spices to add flavor and aroma to its non-vegetarian dishes.  The aroma and flavors are strong, especially since they make use of spicy masala in their dishes.  As such, the Chettinadu Cuisine is recognized for being one of the richest, spiciest, most flavorful, and most aromatic cuisines in the whole of India.

Classical Dishes from Chettinadu:

Spicy Achari Chicken

Keerai Koottu

Paruppu Masiyal

Summa Kulambu

Chettinad Chicken Sambar

Ingredients Utilized in Chettinadu Cuisine:

Cereals: Rice

Nuts and Seeds: Fennel seed, cumin seeds, cashew, mustard seeds

Herbs and Spice (Dried and Fresh): Star aniseed, chili powder, cinnamon, fenugreek, cumin, bay leaf, peppercorn, turmeric, curry, coriander, cinnamon, asafetida, mint

Dairy: Yoghurt, butter, milk, cheese, cream

Vegetables: Onion, tomato, potato, carrot, green peas, pumpkin, cabbage, kidney beans,

Fruits: Tamarind, lemon, lime mango, pomegranate

Meat: Chicken, lamb

Fish: Various

Seafood: Prawns, lobster, crab

Dogri Cuisine

The Dogri Cuisine’s staple food foods include wheat as well as rice.  It also includes pulses, maize, and bajra as part of their staple foods.  You will also find fruit preparations here like the maani, which is a tangy tamarind preparation, although mango is also sometimes used in lieu of tamarind.  The distinctive Dogri Cuisine speaks highly of its people, especially their achievements, so you can expect delicious dishes.

Classical Dishes from Dogri:

Garghal ka Achar

Bharwa Krela

Amla Ka Achar

Zimmikand Ka Achar

Tende Di Subzi

Ingredients Utilized in Dogri Cuisine:

Cereals: Rice

Nuts and Seeds: Coriander seed, fennel seed, nigella seed, fenugreek seed

Herbs and Spice (Dried and Fresh): Turmeric powder, red chili powder, cinnamon, ginger, cardamom, cumin powder, garlic, coriander, cumin

Seasonings- Oils: Mustard oil

Vegetables: Gourd, onion, tomato, pumpkin, spinach

Fruits: Tamarind, mango, pomegranate

Meat: Mutton

Kashmiri Cuisine

The Kashmiri Cuisine has been influenced by the Kashmiri Pandits’ foods and way of cooking.  These people are the Hindus who live in Kashmir, which is a mountainous region situated in South Asia.  The Kashmiri Cuisine has also been influenced by the people who invaded and conquered the region, and these are the invaders from Central Aisa as well as the invaders from Afghanistan and Persia.  This cuisine is most distinctive for its use of mutton in its dishes.  In fact, the Kashmiri Cuisine makes use of more than 30 varieties of mutton.  It is also notable for its elaborate food preparations.

Classical Dishes from Kashmiri:

Syun Qaliya

Yakhein

Tsoek Tsarvan

Rogan Josh

Kabargah

Ingredients Utilized in Kashmiri Cuisine:

Cereals: Rice

Nuts and Seeds: Walnut, cumin seed

Herbs and Spice (Dried and Fresh): Turmeric, powdered chili pepper, cardamom, bay leaves, garlic, asafetida, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, fennel, coriander, fennel

Dairy: Yoghurt, cheese

Vegetables: Potato, spinach, aubergines, turnips, kidney beans, bottle gourd, onion, pumpkin, zucchini, ridge gourd, spinach, cabbage, lotus stem

Fruits: Plum, lime, tamarind

Meat: Lamb, mutton

Fish: Whitefish, pomfret, mackarel

Marathi Cuisine

The Marathi Cuisine came from the Marathi people, and these are those who live in Maharashtra region.  Their dishes can range anywhere from mild-tasting dishes to very spicy dishes.  Like some of the other Indian regional cuisines, rice as well as vegetables and fruits form a huge portion of the Marathi Cuisine.  In fact, you will see a lot of vegetarian dishes in the Marathi Cuisine, although you will also see some dishes consisting of fish, especially in the coastal areas.

Classical Dishes from Marathi:

Surali Wadi

Matar Usal Pav

Sabudana Khichadi

Pav Bhaji

Kothimbir Vadi

Ingredients Utilized in Marathi Cuisine:

Cereals: Wheat, rice

Legumes and Pulse: Lentils

Nuts and Seeds: Mustard seeds, charoli nuts, cashew

Herbs and Spice (Dried and Fresh): Garlic, ginger, red and green chili powder, curry, coriander, cardamom, saffron

Dairy: Butter, yoghurt, paneer or chees

Vegetables: Onion, potato, cauliflower, green peas, cabbage, potato, spinach

Fruits: Tomato, tamarind, banana, plantain, jackfruit, mango, lemon

Meat: Chicken, mutton

Fish: Various

Seafood: Various

Incredible Lessons I’ve Learned About Scopes

Finding A Suitable Shooting Scope

Any exact sportsperson realizes that he takes a high-quality Shooting scope to enhance his hunting experience.

Firing scopes are also within military applications, and often for trap shooting. Scopes are around for crossbows, shotguns, and simply handguns as well meant for Shootings. Shooting scopes are used by many different persons including golf players, hunters and gatherers, and for birding.

The necessary reason behind a scope is to allow a person to see sharper and extra than he’d with the bare eyesight. The extent magnifies the potential target and it’s area. Truly, reduced quality Shootings scopes are substantially improved by decent rifle ones.
What You Should Know About Products This Year

There are many suppliers of top quality scopes. Let’s begin looking at the basics of Shooting scopes. A simple thing, you have got an ocular lens, an elevation and wind adjustments, and a target standard zoom lens.
5 Takeaways That I Learned About Options

The glass is generally lined to enhance visibility and also to lower glare. The size and augmentation of the lenses are excessive reasons when paying for shooting scopes. The cross hairs on the scope are often known as reticles. Reticles may also incorporate dots and extra options to provide various functions.

This help aligns the gun to the spot, however, if you use the rifle to shoot lesser targets, the dot in the center of the scope could possibly be too large and in addition hide the prospective.

Many suppliers, also have a laser dot scope, that displays the hunter where his bullet will reach when the rifle is normally shot. There are nighttime scopes created for weapons as well.

A few of them make an excellent all purpose scope, while another carries a lens that is water resistant. An increased zoom isn’t always vital or actually effective. There exists such a matter as overkill. It will require exceptional care to never only pick the ideal scope for the rifle itself.

Over expansion can ruin a great shot and, at close range make it tough to really get your target. It is very important to be aware of the not only how high it might magnify and collect light, but also how low it might proceed. A close shot will not call for great zoom and will likely be crafted from the same rifle as yet another one.

Blasting from the waist won’t produce the result as using the suitable rifles copes will. After choosing the right rifle scopes from whatever manufacturer you like, it is very important to site in the scope. To take action, a superb laser beam foresight can become invaluable.

This can make sure detail, and preserve bullets. You could find more information at this website. So think feel free to check out anytime.